A version of this blog post was originally published by the Financial Times.
Recently, I traveled to Madrid. I booked a flight on British Airways and found myself flying… Iberia. Of course these days these two “national carriers” are part of the same company, listed primarily on the London Stock Exchange and Bolsa y Mercados Espanoles, the Madrid exchange.
The Madrid and London stock exchanges are both over 150 years old and fiercely independent. They used to be among scores of independent stock exchanges around the world, all existing to serve their local markets with listings of companies from their country or local area. But increasingly independence is the exception, not the norm, for stock markets.